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Volume 89 Issue 51 | p. 11 | News of The Week
Issue Date: December 19, 2011 | Web Date: January 3, 2012

Ion Channel Blocks Acid Pain

Neuroscience: Gated protein renders naked mole rats insensitive to low pH
Department: Science & Technology
News Channels: Biological SCENE
Keywords: pain management, naked mole rats, ion channels, neuroscience, acid sensitivity
In this clip, Gary Lewin talks about research being done in his lab to understand the unique behaviors of naked mole rats.
Credit: Petra Dahl/Max Delbrück Center for Molecular Medicine

African naked mole rats, the only mammals known to be impervious to acid-related pain, should thank sodium channels in their neurons for the unique sensory trait, a new study suggests (Science, DOI: 10.1126/science.1213760). Understanding how the hairless, toothy rodents have evolved to handle the high levels of acid in their tissue might help scientists tackle human inflammatory conditions in which acidosis occurs.

To elucidate the molecular mechanism behind the mole rats’ acid insensitivity, Gary R. Lewin of Max Delbrück Center for Molecular Medicine, in Germany, and coworkers first compared the behavior of acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs) in the neurons of the hairless rodents with their behavior in mice. “At the beginning of the project, we thought that mole rats, which live underground in high-CO2 acidic environments, might not express ASICs or that the channels were somehow different,” explains postdoc Ewan St. John Smith. But the team found no significant differences between the ASICs in mole rats and mice.

Lewin’s group then closely investigated the voltage-gated sodium ion channel Nav1.7, the membrane protein that ultimately allows neurons to fire, in both animals. The researchers determined that in naked mole rats, acidic protons block Nav1.7. The hairless critters, the team found, have a negatively charged amino acid motif in one region of their Nav1.7 channels where mice—and humans—have a positively charged motif. The researchers think acidic protons might disable the sodium channel in mole rats by interaction with these negatively charged residues.

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Naked mole rats, shown here in Lewin’s lab, are the only mammals known to be insensitive to acid-induced pain.
Credit: Max Delbrück Center for Molecular Medicine
Naked mole rats, shown here in the lab of Gary R. Lewin of the Max Delbrück Center for Molecular Medicine, are the only mammals insensitive to acid-induced pain.
 
Naked mole rats, shown here in Lewin’s lab, are the only mammals known to be insensitive to acid-induced pain.
Credit: Max Delbrück Center for Molecular Medicine

This “interesting finding,” says Cheryl L. Stucky, a neuroscientist at the Medical College of Wisconsin, might one day lead to a therapy for acid-related pain conditions, such as that caused by severe sickle cell disease. “If you could upregulate the channel to be inhibited by acid”—perhaps via small molecules or gene therapy—“you could put the brake on neuron firing during pain.”

The next step for his team, Lewin says, is to determine whether mice engineered with a copy of the naked mole rats’ Nav1.7 gene become insensitive to acid pain.

 
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