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Web Date: December 13, 2011

Bacterial ID In A Half-Hour

Medical Diagnostics: Chip identifies pathogens in minutes, not days
Department: Science & Technology
News Channels: Analytical SCENE, Biological SCENE
Keywords: electrochemical sensor, medical diagnostics, bacterial identification, biosensor
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Portable Diagnosis
In 30 minutes, a cartridge breaks open cells with an electrical field (center circle) and then detects bacterial nucleic acids on an electrochemical chip (right).
Credit: Brian Lam
20111213lnj1-chip2
 
Portable Diagnosis
In 30 minutes, a cartridge breaks open cells with an electrical field (center circle) and then detects bacterial nucleic acids on an electrochemical chip (right).
Credit: Brian Lam

A doctor can wait for days to get laboratory results identifying the microbe behind a patient’s illness. But a new biosensing chip can do the same thing on-site in minutes (Anal. Chem., DOI: 10.1021/ac202599b). The chip both breaks apart cells and detects bacterial DNA in a novel all-in-one test.

A rapid method to identify bacteria is a “pressing unmet need,” says Shana O. Kelley at the University of Toronto. After taking a sample from a patient, doctors depend on either growing the bacteria on a culture plate, which can take days, or amplifying the bacterial DNA using polymerase chain reaction, which requires pure samples and expensive equipment.

Kelley decided to tackle the problem with a biosensor that can detect a microbe’s nucleic acids without sample preparation or complex equipment. Earlier this year, Kelley’s group developed a highly sensitive bacterial DNA-sensing chip that could spot DNA even in unpurified samples. But the researchers still had to break open the bacterial cells—a process called lysis—to release the DNA before applying the samples to the chip. To make a more useful clinical test, they now have added a lysis chamber to the chip.

Their two-step testing cartridge is not much bigger than a domino. It first applies an electrical field to the sample to break cells apart. Then biomolecule probes bind to DNA from specific disease-causing bacteria, triggering an electrochemical reaction that reports the binding.

The researchers put their system to the test by adding probes for two common microbes responsible for urinary tract infections: Staphylococcus saprophyticus and Escherichiacoli. The cartridge detected both bacteria in urine at levels as low as one cell per microliter, which makes it sensitive enough to be made into a tool doctors could use. Kelley says the cartridge can be tweaked to detect up to 100 types of pathogens at once and would be easy to make in bulk.

 
Chemical & Engineering News
ISSN 0009-2347
Copyright © American Chemical Society
Comments
Mr. Terry J. Clifton (Fri Dec 16 08:00:59 EST 2011)
This is a very interesting article. Currently I am teaching Microbiology at Jackson High SChool in Jackson, Michigan. I would be very interrested in learning more and possibly getting a sample to show my students. With bacteria developing new strains, it is very important that doctors prescribe the appropriate antibotics instead of a shotgun method.
Steve Clark (Thu Jan 05 14:36:57 EST 2012)
please send me more information on this awesome method. Any idea on getting it EPA or NIH approved? Do you know who will be selling this in the near future?

send to steve@vannetgroup.com
866-616-8263
Lila Guterman (Thu Jan 05 15:09:05 EST 2012)
Thank you for your interest, Steve. For further information on the method, I recommend you contact Dr. Kelley, who did the research.
--Lila Guterman, C&EN
Philip A. Russell (Thu Jan 05 17:02:35 EST 2012)
Depending on the sensitivity of this device (which looks very OK) ... it could provide a very useful tool for detecting/enumerating e. coli (and other bacteria) in wastewater and environmental waters .... where it currently takes 18 to 24 hours ... a potential huge market foe something like this. I'd love to give it a trial here in Denver!
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