Issue Date: May 20, 2013 | Web Date: May 17, 2013
Timeline: Human Genome Map Turns 10
The Human Genome Project Through The Years
Department of Energy announces Human Genome Initiative
DOE national labs devote $5.3 million to developing critical resources and technologies after a conference in Santa Fe, N.M.
Human Genome Project begins
DOE and the National Institutes of Health present project plan to Congress, and the project formally begins.
Data-sharing guidelines released
DOE and NIH announce guidelines for data release and resource sharing.
Haemophilus influenzae sequence completed
The first bacterial genome is sequenced.
Methanocaldococcus jannaschii sequence completed
The first archaeal genome is sequenced.
Human-subject guidelines released
DOE and NIH issue guidelines on use of human subjects for large-scale sequencing projects.
Yeast genome sequence completed
Saccharomyces cerevisiaegenome is sequenced by an international consortium.
Escherichia coli sequence completed
E. coli K-12 strain MG1655 genome is sequenced.
DOE forms Joint Genome Institute
New institute focuses on high-throughput sequencing and functional genomics.
Celera Genomics forms
Firm’s goal is to sequence the human genome in three years.
Roundworm sequence completed
Caenorhabditis elegans genome is sequenced.
Large-scale sequencing centers open
National Human Genome Research Institute (NHGRI) begins supporting large-scale sequencing centers.
Draft of human genome sequence completed
Leaders celebrate its completion at the White House.
Fruit fly sequence is completed
Drosophila melanogaster genome is sequenced.
Draft of rat genome sequence published
Draft of rice genome sequence published
Human Genome Project ends
The project is officially declared over.
NHGRI launches the Encyclopedia of DNA Elements, a public research effort to identify all functional elements in the human genome sequence.
Genographic Project begins
National Geographicmagazine and IBM launch the project to analyze historical patterns in DNA from people around the world to better understand human genetic roots.
Human Microbiome Project begins
NIH funds effort to characterize the microbial communities found at several sites on the human body.
Genetic Information Nondiscrimination Act becomes law
President George W. Bush signs the act into law, which prohibits the use of genetic information for health insurance and employment.
Second-generation sequencers introduced
New sequencing platforms cause the cost of DNA sequencing to plummet, outpacing Moore's law.
1000 Genomes Project publishes paper
Project consortium publishes a pilot paper in Nature, showing genetic variation in 1,000 human genomes.
ENCODE results published
Results of the project, covering more than 4 million regulatory regions in the human genome, are published as a coordinated set of 30 papers in multiple journals.
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