EPA has set a new one-hour air quality standard for nitrogen dioxide of 100 ppb, while retaining the existing annual average standard of 53 ppb. State and local regulators will have to use more monitors to track emissions of the pollutant. "For the first time ever, we are working to prevent short-term exposures in high-risk NO2 zones such as urban communities and areas near roadways," EPA Administrator Lisa P. Jackson says. NO2 is formed from vehicle, power plant, and other industrial emissions and contributes to the formation of fine-particle pollution and smog. Industry groups say the new air standard is unnecessary and will not significantly improve public health. The American Petroleum Institute, the main trade group for the oil and natural gas industry, says the standard is "bad public policy and does not justify the additional economic burdens placed on consumers, states, and industry." Public health advocates, such as the American Lung Association, call the one-hour limit "a step forward in the fight for cleaner, healthier air" but are disappointed a stricter standard was not adopted.