Volume 90 Issue 27 | p. 11 | News of The Week
Issue Date: July 2, 2012

Genomics Of White Rot Fungi Yields New Enzymes, Explains End Of Major Coal Formation

Comparative study of lignin-decaying organisms could open new avenues to biofuels
Department: Science & Technology
News Channels: Biological SCENE, Analytical SCENE
Keywords: biomass, biofuel, enzymes, lignin, cellulose, coal
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Credit: A. Justo/D. Floudas
A scanning electron micrograph image of weblike structures on jagged peaks, aspen wood that has been ravaged by the white rot fungus Punctularia strigosozonata.
 
Credit: A. Justo/D. Floudas
[+]Enlarge
Credit: A. Justo/D. Floudas
The turkey tail mushroom is a white rot fungus that can decal the tough biopolymer lignin in wood.
 
Credit: A. Justo/D. Floudas

Turkey tail (bottom) is a peroxidase-producing white rot fungus capable of decaying the tough biopolymer lignin in wood, as seen in this scanning electron micrograph image of a fungus-ravaged aspen sample.

A comparative study of the genomes of 31 fungi has shed light on how white rot fungi evolved the ability to degrade the recalcitrant plant biopolymer lignin (Science, DOI: 10.1126/science.1221748). The findings provide an opening for researchers to use or reengineer fungal enzymes to advance biofuel production.

Scientists already have an arsenal of enzymes to attack cellulose and hemicellulose—the primary components of plant cell walls—to get the component sugars that can be fermented into biofuels. But when it comes to lignin, the irregularly cross-linked phenolic polymer in the cellulose matrix that provides strength and rigidity to plants, success has been limited.

White rot fungi are the only organisms capable of substantially decaying lignin, using peroxidase and other enzymes. The study, by a team of 70 researchers led by David S. Hibbett of Clark University, in Worcester, Mass., and Igor V. Grigoriev of the Department of Energy’s Joint Genome Institute, took a systematic look at fungal genes that code for lignin-busting enzymes. The analysis uncovered a treasure trove of new enzymes to test and tinker with.

In addition, by reconstructing the history of gene mutations, the team found that the first fungal peroxidases appeared 290 million years ago, at the same time that massive formation of coal ended. The finding suggests that the fungi’s acquired ability to degrade lignin altered Earth’s evolution, Hibbett says, by turning biomass into compost and subverting its fossilization into coal.

 
Chemical & Engineering News
ISSN 0009-2347
Copyright © American Chemical Society
Comments
Thomas Munyon (Mon Jul 02 21:44:52 EDT 2012)
I wonder what the effect on atmospheric carbon was once carbon was no longer sequestered as coal.
K Ryter (Tue Jul 10 15:33:00 EDT 2012)
What happens to all the carbon we are pumping into the atmosphere if there is no mechanism for re-sequestration as coal?
Pierfrancesco Morganti prof of skin pharmacology uni of Naples,Italy and China Medical Uni of Shenyang (Sat Jul 14 06:26:34 EDT 2012)
To Ryter. A disaster! We have to plant more trees wolprldwide remembereing their activity on Carbon reuse and respect the environment more.

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