Polar bear hair inspires stealth fabric | February 26, 2018 Issue - Vol. 96 Issue 9 | Chemical & Engineering News
Volume 96 Issue 9 | p. 4 | News of The Week
Issue Date: February 26, 2018 | Web Date: February 21, 2018

Polar bear hair inspires stealth fabric

A cape made from porous fibers traps heat and hides a bunny from night-vision cameras
Department: Science & Technology
Keywords: Materials, polar bear, stealth, thermal imaging, night vision camera
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A lab rabbit wearing a cloak with fibers that mimic polar bear hair (top left) is invisible to a thermal imaging camera (top right). Under a polyester cape (bottom left), the bunny’s cover is blown (bottom right).
Credit: Adv. Mater.
A laboratory rabbit wearing a biomimetic textile in a photograph compared with an IR camera photograph.
 
A lab rabbit wearing a cloak with fibers that mimic polar bear hair (top left) is invisible to a thermal imaging camera (top right). Under a polyester cape (bottom left), the bunny’s cover is blown (bottom right).
Credit: Adv. Mater.

Hide your lettuce and lock up the carrots: Stealth rabbits are on the prowl. Researchers have woven a cloak that makes a bunny almost invisible to infrared cameras, thanks to fibers that mimic the structure of polar bear hairs (Adv. Mater. 2018, DOI: 10.1002/adma.201706807).

The hairs of a polar bear have a hollow core, which reflects back IR emissions from the animal’s body. This structure helps prevent heat loss and keeps the bears warm in their Arctic environments.

But the hairs have an added advantage: They can conceal the bears from thermal imaging cameras used in many night-vision devices. Textiles that can mimic polar bear hair’s IR-reflecting abilities might be useful in stealth applications, such as concealing soldiers. Previous attempts to make synthetic versions of the hairs have produced fibers that are too weak to be practically useful.

A team from Zhejiang University has now used a freeze-spinning method to make fibers that are porous, strong, and highly thermally insulating. They consist of fibroin, a protein found in silk, along with a small amount of the polysaccharide chitosan.

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The porous fiber could be woven into a textile with thermal stealth properties.
Credit: Adv. Mater.
Scanning electron micrograph shows the structure of a textile woven from the biomimetic fibers.
 
The porous fiber could be woven into a textile with thermal stealth properties.
Credit: Adv. Mater.

The researchers slowly squeezed a viscous, watery mixture of these materials through a cold copper ring, forming a frozen fiber that contained flat ice crystals. Freeze-drying the fibers removed the ice by sublimation to produce strong fibers about 200 µm wide with up to 87% porosity. After varying conditions such as the viscosity of the mixture and the temperature of the ring, they found that running the process at -100 °C produced pores about 30 µm across, which offered the best balance between strength and thermal insulation. “I was surprised to see the thermal conductivity of the biomimetic fiber was even lower than polar bear hair,” says Hao Bai, who led the team.

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Preparing the fur-mimicking fibers at -100 °C produced pores about 30 µm across.
Credit: Adv. Mater.
Scanning electron micrograph shows the cross section of a porous fiber.
 
Preparing the fur-mimicking fibers at -100 °C produced pores about 30 µm across.
Credit: Adv. Mater.

It’s not the first time that this ice-templating method has been used to make porous fibers, says Sylvain Deville, research director of the Ceramic Synthesis and Functionalization Laboratory, who uses the method in his own research. But, he says, the team demonstrated good control of the fiber structures.

To demonstrate the thermal stealth potential of the fibers, the researchers wove them into a textile to make a little cape for a live lab rabbit. The critter’s body heat was all but invisible by thermal imaging, whether the background temperature was 40 °C, 15 °C or -10 °C.

As an encore, the Zhejiang team produced an electrically-conductive textile by adding carbon nanotubes to the mixture of fiber precursors. Applying a voltage of 5 V raised the conductive fabric’s temperature from 24 °C to 36 °C in less than one minute—not useful for stealth, but potentially helpful for keeping winter clothing cozy. “It’s interesting that they’re able to introduce different materials, so they can combine different functionalities,” Deville says.

Bai has patented the freeze-spinning technique, and hopes to develop the fiber into a commercial product. However, Deville notes that the freeze-spinning process is currently quite slow. “I suspect they will never be able to go very fast, so they may not be able to use it for large-scale applications.”.

 
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ISSN 0009-2347
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Comments
Bill C. (Thu Feb 22 06:32:13 EST 2018)
I am curious if any of the polar bears' prey animals, see in IR, and the bear's fur would make them less visible to such prey animals? I know their main source of food is seals, but perhaps, they access other food sources as well.
ThatAlastair (Fri Feb 23 11:10:07 EST 2018)
No, none of them do. The polar bear's fur is structured that way as it provides better heat insulation in the cold Arctic. A by-product of heat insulation is that it also screens against IR emissions.
Synapsis (Fri Feb 23 07:27:18 EST 2018)
Sounds exciting. Wonder how hot it gets under the fabric. I would guess heat dissipation is essential for most equipment (or people) to properly function. Imagine stealthy combat troops sweating like crazy? May be revolutionary for cold weathers if it can be mass produced?
Yan (Fri Mar 09 05:14:44 EST 2018)
Really interesting, interesting to see how heat is removed to stop cold weather pursuits or soldiers overheating.

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