EPA has issued final standards requiring facilities that produce polyvinyl chloride and copolymers to reduce emissions of several toxic air pollutants, including vinyl chloride, hydrogen chloride, and chlorinated dioxins and furans. The previous standard, established in 1976, set limits only for vinyl chloride. The agency expects the new rule to result in a total U.S. annual emission reduction of 238 tons of toxic air pollutants from large-scale emitters. EPA says the standards are based on currently available technologies, and facilities will have “the flexibility to choose the most practical and cost-effective control technology or technique” to reduce their emissions. Facilities will be required to monitor emissions at certain points in the PVC production process to ensure that the standards are met. The U.S. currently has 17 PVC production facilities, with the majority located in Louisiana and Texas. EPA estimates it will initially cost industry $18 million in total capital investment to meet the rule’s requirements, with additional annual costs of $4 million.