1923 Chemical & Engineering News begins as the News Edition of Industrial & Engineering Chemistry.

1923 Acids and bases get refined definitions—one from Johannes N. Brønsted and Thomas M. Lowry, another from Gilbert N. Lewis.

1923 Tetraethyllead, an antiknock additive to gasoline, earns its discoverer, Thomas Midgley Jr., an ACS award.

1925 Six German firms merge to form the IG Farben conglomerate. It soon becomes the world’s biggest chemical company.

1925–27 Work from Werner Heisenberg, Wolfgang E. Pauli, and Erwin Schrödinger ushers in the era of quantum mechanics.

1926 Four U.K. chemical companies merge to form Imperial Chemical Industries (ICI). In its heyday it will become the British Empire’s largest manufacturing firm.

1928–29 Examining mold, Alexander Fleming discovers penicillin.

1928 C. V. Raman reports a light-scattering effect, which he observed after musing on the Mediterranean Sea’s deep blue color. Adolf Smekal predicted this phenomenon in 1923.

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