0
Facebook
Volume 91 Issue 31 | pp. 12-16
Issue Date: August 5, 2013

Cover Stories: University Inc.

Attitude Change: Universities, once wary of industry, have formed more ties with firms as companies downsized their own labs

Department: Business
Keywords: research & development, partnership, polymers, academia
[+]Enlarge
Justin Smith Morrill, a Vermont congressman from 1867 to 1898, was a founder of the Republican Party.
Credit: Library of Congress
09131-cover-timeline1862morrill
 
Justin Smith Morrill, a Vermont congressman from 1867 to 1898, was a founder of the Republican Party.
Credit: Library of Congress

1862 Land-grant system is introduced

The Morrill Act establishes the funding of federal land-grant institutions to promote technical-oriented education and the commitment of scientific advances to the public.

1961 Eisenhower gives farewell address

In an address memorable for the phrase “military-industrial complex,” the President warns of undue influence undermining the “free university.”

[+]Enlarge
Credit: Newscom
09131-cover-timeline1969counterculture
 
Credit: Newscom

1969 “The Making of a Counter Culture” hits bookstores

Theodore Roszak’s book, published within weeks of the Woodstock music festival, defines the 1960s counterculture as a reaction to “technocracy,” the encroachment of business and commerce into social institutions.

1980 CUMIRP starts up

The Center for UMass/Industry Research on Polymers, a state-funded program to promote university-industry research partnerships, is formed.

[+]Enlarge
Nobel Laureates John Bardeen (left), William Shockley (seated), and Walter Brattain conduct research that led to the invention of the transistor at Bell Labs in 1947.
Credit: Newscom
09131-cover-timeline1984belllabs
 
Nobel Laureates John Bardeen (left), William Shockley (seated), and Walter Brattain conduct research that led to the invention of the transistor at Bell Labs in 1947.
Credit: Newscom

1984 AT&T breaks up

The breakup of the telephone monopoly signals the dismantling of Bell Laboratories, a template for large, commercial research labs.

1984 Industrial labs close

Recession-related cuts affect Tosco, Diamond Shamrock, and Ashland Chemical. Research departments are downsized steadily into the early 1990s, with cuts fueled by economic cycles and corporate restructuring.

1985 Exxon downsizes research

Exxon, which since the 1970s built a corporate research division to rival Bell Labs, makes big cuts at its laboratories.

1986 RCA Laboratories is dismantled

RCA, where research had been in decline for years, is acquired by General Electric, which breaks it up.

1993 Corporations are reengineered

Reengineering the Corporation: A Manifesto for Business Revolution,” by Michael M. Hammer and James A. Champy, is published. Business process reengineering accelerates R&D downsizing and outsourcing throughout the 1990s.

1994 Eastman Chemical splits from Eastman Kodak

The new chemical firm adapts a research approach that had been defined by its former parent company’s policy of doing work in-house. Kodak starts a decline that ends in Chapter 11 bankruptcy in 2012.

[+]Enlarge
Novartis makes maximum use of open space and architectural forms of nature throughout the Novartis Institutes for BioMedical Research, in Cambridge, Mass.
Credit: Novartis
09131-cover-timeline2003novartis
 
Novartis makes maximum use of open space and architectural forms of nature throughout the Novartis Institutes for BioMedical Research, in Cambridge, Mass.
Credit: Novartis

2002 Xerox cuts PARC

The business machine giant spins off its research division, marking another exit from fundamental R&D at a large corporation.

2003 Pharma comes to Cambridge

Novartis establishes R&D in the former New England Confectionery Co. candy factory, moving its locus of research from Switzerland to the Massachusetts hometown of MIT, Harvard University, and other academic powerhouses. Pfizer and AstraZeneca also ramp up research in the Cambridge/Boston area.

2007 BP inks deal with UC Berkeley …

[+]Enlarge
The Harvard University School of Engineering & Applied Sciences.
Credit: Harvard University
09131-cover-timeline2007harvard
 
The Harvard University School of Engineering & Applied Sciences.
Credit: Harvard University

University of California, Berkeley, signs onto a $500 million research pact with BP that includes a flexible policy on intellectual property rights, forming the Energy Biosciences Institute. The contract becomes a template by which other schools begin allowing industrial partners the right to intellectual property.

2007 … and so does Dow Chemical

The Dow Chemical Co. Foundation gives $10 million over five years to support the Sustainable Products & Solutions Program at UC Berkeley.

2007 BASF goes to Harvard

The German chemical firm makes research landfall in the U.S., signing with Harvard on a five-year materials science collaboration.

[+]Enlarge
Scientists at Pfizer’s Boston CTI site have formed close ties with academics.
Credit: Lisa Jarvis/C&EN
09131-cover-timeline2010pfizer
 
Scientists at Pfizer’s Boston CTI site have formed close ties with academics.
Credit: Lisa Jarvis/C&EN

2010 Pfizer advances academic links

Pharma giant launches an academic research network.Scientists at Pfizer’s Centers for Therapeutic Innovation, in Cambridge, Mass., have formed close ties with academics.

2011 Dow advances academic research

The company announces a $250 million investment in 11 universities over 10 years.Dow expects that its own scientists will benefit from university research.

2011 University of Massachusetts launches UMass Innovation Institute

[+]Enlarge
Michael F. Malone, UMass Amherst’s vice chancellor for research and engagement (from left); Christian Fischer, president of BASF Advanced Materials & Systems Research; Richard McCullough, Harvard’s vice provost for research; and Mary C. Boyce, head of MIT’s mechanical engineering department.
Credit: BASF
09131-cover-timeline2013BASF
 
Michael F. Malone, UMass Amherst’s vice chancellor for research and engagement (from left); Christian Fischer, president of BASF Advanced Materials & Systems Research; Richard McCullough, Harvard’s vice provost for research; and Mary C. Boyce, head of MIT’s mechanical engineering department.
Credit: BASF

UMass Amherst launches a new industrial outreach initiative drawing on a 30-year-old program in polymer engineering.

2012 Google makes space for Cornell NYC Tech

Information technology giant gives Cornell University $10 million of office space in New York City.

2013 BASF renews North American Center for Research on Advanced Materials

BASF re-ups its five-year contract with Harvard, expanding the partnership to include UMass Amherst and MIT.

 

 
Chemical & Engineering News
ISSN 0009-2347
Copyright © American Chemical Society