A cooperative study by the U.S. National Academies and the Chinese Academy of Sciences has issued its report on the challenges facing the two countries in meeting energy needs and reducing urban pollution problems. The lengthy report, "Energy Futures and Urban Air Pollution: Challenges for China and the U.S.," compares the energy situations in each country, pointing out similarities and differences in supply and demand, and describes the challenges in trying to reduce air pollution while increasing energy use. A key difference in the two nations is that the U.S. relies on strong central pollution management via EPA, while in China, most control activities are carried out by local environmental protection bureaus, which are described as often lacking necessary funding or technical capacity to perform effectively (see page 10). The study offers a number of recommendations for improving energy use and air quality that are intended to be relevant to both countries. These include, in part, better promotion of energy efficiency, early and comprehensive work on reducing pollution, faster development of clean technologies for power generation, and acceleration of development of renewable energy sources.