Toxic Toy Data Lacking | Chemical & Engineering News
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Web Date: March 30, 2012

Toxic Toy Data Lacking

Product Safety: Holes in research and regulations need filling to protect children from heavy metals in toys, according to scientists
Department: Science & Technology, Government & Policy
News Channels: Environmental SCENE
Keywords: toxic metals, toys, lead, children, health, consumer products, safety
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Harmful Toys
Brittle and pliable toys form the category of toys with the most potential to expose children to toxic metals, researchers say. Children are most likely to put this type of toy in their mouths.
Credit: Shutterstock
Photo of child playing with toys.
 
Harmful Toys
Brittle and pliable toys form the category of toys with the most potential to expose children to toxic metals, researchers say. Children are most likely to put this type of toy in their mouths.
Credit: Shutterstock

A review of toy safety regulations and related scientific studies found significant gaps in both regulations of, and data on, toxic metals (Environ. Sci. Technol., DOI: 10.1021/es203470x).

Environmental engineer Gérald J. Zagury and graduate student Mert Guney at Montreal Polytechnic compared regulations for toxic metals in consumer products in the U.S., Canada, and European Union. They found that U.S. and Canadian regulations focus primarily on lead, while European Union toy safety legislation sets limits on 19 metals. These European limits are based on data on the metals’ bioavailability and the toys’ composition—a more realistic determination of toxicity, the researchers say, than North America’s measure of metal content in a toy, the researchers say. “We were surprised to see that North American toy regulations were so weak,” Zagury says.

The emphasis on lead in U.S. and Canadian regulations mirrors the focus of worldwide scientific studies on metal-contaminated toys and jewelry, the researchers found. They observed gaps in data on exposure from toys and low-cost jewelry to metals other than lead. They also found that few behavioral studies have looked at how children’s play with toys affects their exposure to metals. For instance, younger children may be more likely to be exposed when they put toys in their mouths, but the researchers report no studies measuring ingested toy material.

The researchers suggest that regulators require product testing that considers the potential bioavailability of 12 toxic metals, including arsenic and cadmium, that are likely to occur in toys. Such regulations should also consider child behavior and exposure pathways, toy composition, and children’s exposure to metals from other sources, all of which require further study, the researchers add.

 
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Comments
Bhaskar (April 2, 2012 1:24 AM)
I think most of the toys doesn't show it's composition and how come an end user know what metals are inside?
Kenneth Moore (April 2, 2012 7:52 PM)
Bhaskar, the toy composition entails type of compoments in the toy--so, plastic parts, brittle or pliable parts, paint or coating covered parts, metal parts, etc. Different types of components have different exposure profiles and different risks on the basis of their chemical profile. Also, total metal content--which the US and Canada use primarily to determine limits of toxic metals--doesn't necessarily take into account the bioavailability of the metals (their potential to be released from the toy and interact with bodily systems), which also depends on the type of material used in the toy.

So, it's a lot of complicated variable that regulations seem to try to simplify and lump together for the ease of testing. An end user--a parent--won't necessarily know what is within the toy. But that's why greater regulatory enforcement is needed, the researchers say, to ensure that toxic toys don't reach kids' mouths!

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