C&EN Whitepapers

C&EN Whitepapers

The chromatographic applications include purification and analysis of VLPs and antibody drugs, LC/MS and HILIC analysis of oligonucleotides, amino acids and other proteins. The initial proof of concept of these biopharmaceutical applications displays recent advances in this growing field.

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ChemDraw provides time-saving chemical intelligence, publication-worthy graphical templates, and scientific tools. We frequently hear, “I’ve been using ChemDraw for years. I already know how to use it”. But do you? Download our white paper to learn the latest user-acclaimed tips that will dramatically increase your productivity by saving you valuable time. Whether you’re an experienced chemist or an aspiring one, ChemDraw allows you to draw organic chemistry without having to master drawing.

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Surfactants made from natural, renewable sources, such as like plant-based oils, have less environmental impact than ones made from nonrenewable sources. Scientists are seeking new applications for surfactants derived from natural sources — soy in particular — with potential applications in personal care products, laundry detergents, and environmental bioremediation. As ballooning consumer interest in cleaning products sourced from renewable resources dovetails with public efforts to limit toxic environmental contamination, surfactants made from high oleic soybean oil seem poised to reshape the market.

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Digital transformation has become a hot topic, with increasing demand for it in the chemical industry. Digital technologies have impacted companies for the last two decades in ways that we did not predict. From manufacturing to electronics, the impact has been widespread. A few industries have been hesitant to adopt digital technologies. Among the few industries lagging in digital adoption is the chemicals industry. This is often cited by the lack of tools or measurable impact in conjunction to the risk for chemical companies. However, overcoming these hurdles can help chemical companies reap the benefits of digital transformation.

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When developing a new LC or LC-MS separation, careful consideration of mobile phase composition is essential for optimizing peak shape, improving separation selectivity, and ensuring method robustness. For samples containing ionizable compounds, it is important to select and appropriate mobile phase pH to control the analyte ionization state, to achieve reliable retention times.This white paper discusses the important aspects to consider when selecting mobile phase buffers to ensure the development of robust and reproducible LC separations.

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When scientists are interested in the elemental and isotopic composition of particulate matter in natural waters or in the air, they use a glass or quartz fiber filter to collect this particulate matter. Subsequently, the filter is combusted using a CHNS elemental analyzer. Filter samples are distinct from other samples commonly analyzed by elemental analyzers. They are very voluminous (especially 47 mm filters) and produce a lot of ash. Oftentimes, the filters are loaded with sample material containing only very low elemental concentrations, making the removal of the ambient air blank very important. Taking these considerations into account, Elementar offers a modified version of its newest CHNS+O+Cl elemental analyzer - the UNICUBE, which is optimized for the analysis of particulate matter on glass fiber filters. This analyzer is already being used by many oceanographers, with some even performing shipboard measurements!

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A new vaccine technology based on mRNA is being tested in human clinical trials, accelerated by the COVID-19 global pandemic. mRNA-based therapeutics for a range of other conditions, from cystic fibrosis to cancer, are also entering early stage clinical trials. As mRNA production rapidly scales up, the critical need for a highly scalable mRNA purification technology has also emerged. Thermo Fisher’s POROS™ Oligo (dT)25 affinity resin is tailor made for scalable mRNA purification. The mRNA sticks to the resin and impurities are washed away. This whitepaper examines the need for highly scalable mRNA production, and then explores the affinity resin’s advantages over other mRNA purification techniques.

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Today’s chromatographers face the same challenges that chromatographers faced 25years ago—to develop methods that maximize resolution between their analytes of interest. Selection of an appropriate pH for the analytes of interest is critical for ionizable compounds. Once the stationary phase, organic solvent, and pH are selected, vary temperature and gradient time. Then use of a commercially available method optimization software package is recommended. While C18 is a good all-purpose phase for initial method development, the other phases offer alternate selectivities. It is good practice to screen multiple phases to ensure the best possible separation.

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The total organic carbon (TOC) content is an important indicator for a multitude of applications. In agricultural science, carbon is an important parameter to understand the element cycling of soils and sediments. Organic carbon enters through the decomposition of plant and animal residues and acts as the main source of nutrients for microorganisms and plants. TOC analysis, therefore, provides essential information about microbiological activity and organic matter to characterize and evaluate soil and sediment.

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The field of native mass spectrometry has advanced significantly over the past several years. Integration of a powerful online separation can advance the field of native mass spectrometry even further. Capillary Electrophoresis (CE), coupled via ESI, is a natural fit for native mass spec analysis because it can be performed in native solvent conditions without concern for interactions with a chromatographic stationary phase. Here we highlight the unique capabilities of a fully integrated microfluidic CE-ESI platform for native protein analysis by demonstrating the high-resolution separation of charge variants of a monoclonal antibody along with two different examples of native protein complex analysis.

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Of all enterprise cheminformatics applications, electronic lab notebooks (ELN) place the most stringent demands on embedded chemical editors. ELNs not only exercise the editor as a chemical query tool, but also require authoring complex reaction schemes, performing stoichiometry calculations, generating chemical properties, and even automating the authoring of synthetic preparation narratives from the chemical reaction drawing. Learn all the benefits you will derive when ChemDraw, with its 35 year track record of continuous innovation in chemical communications, is enhanced by being embedded in the PerkinElmer Signals™Notebook.

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Reaction screening requires the systematic exploration of a broad set of relevant reaction variables to achieve optimization. A well-planned approach using high-throughput screening tools allows scientists to clearly see the “big picture”, quickly abandon disadvantaged routes and rapidly pinpoint advantageous and impactful conditions to focus on.

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The number of technology platforms utilized in the chemical synthesis of actives, intermediates and other complex substances across pharmaceutical and biotechnology markets has rapidly expanded since 2000. Prior to that time, most small molecule APIs were relatively simply, and could be manufactured with ‘classical’ chemistry technologies. However today, many small molecule APIs in clinical development require multiple advanced technologies for a single synthetic sequence. Examples include high potency APIs, continuous processes, synthesis and conjugation with PEGs and mPEGs, carbohydrate chemistry, polymer APIs, microbial fermentation, biocatalysis, and cryogenic chemistry. It is challenging for any single pharmaceutical company or contract manufacturing organization (CMO) to develop a portfolio of advanced technologies that can accommodate the needs of all process steps involved in the production of such complex APIs.

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The success or failure of many mass spectrometry experiments depends on the ability to reliably detect low-abundance peptides of interest while screening out unwanted noise. High-field asymmetric waveform ion mobility spectrometry (FAIMS) can help users achieve superior selectivity by diverting targeted ions into the MS instrument for analysis, while deflecting away non-target ions that would otherwise generate background interference. This ebook introduces readers to the Thermo Scientific™ FAIMS Pro™ interface, and explores how various research groups in both academia and industry are making use of this technology in their proteomics work. For example, FAIMS can improve limits of detection in assays designed to detect signature of infection or cancer-related biomarkers, or enable superior quantitation in multiplexed MS experiments performed with isobaric labeling techniques. FAIMS Pro offers a simple and user-friendly means for introducing this powerful additional separation step into proteomics experimental workflows, and we hope that these case studies will inspire even more creative applications of this technique in the MS user community.

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Biologics are here to stay. Those seeing approval have begun extending beyond monoclonal antibodies to include more complex designs such as antibody-drug conjugates. Purification methods vary between biomolecule designs but chromatography is the dominant process. This whitepaper introduces readers both to the chromatography modes that are typically used for biomolecule purification, and to those used at the analytical scale for quality control purposes. The dominant purification method for biologics is chromatography. Chromatography is also used for quality control purposes. Introduction to how the following modes of chromatography work and what they are useful for:
- Affinity chromatography
- Size-exclusion chromatography (SEC)
- Ion-exchange (IEX) chromatography
- Hydrophobic-interaction chromatography (HIC)
- Reverse-phase (RP) chromatography Key YMC America products for all the above five chromatography modes when used for biomolecules

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Routine laboratories are the analytical facilities that continually strive to keep our water, food, medicine, and consumer goods safe, effective, and authentic. Over the years, the pressures on these labs has steadily increased because of spiraling operational and staffing costs, ever-more complex analyses, and the need to stay abreast of changing technology. This eBook shares some of the unique, sophisticated, and sometimes space-travel worthy, liquid chromatography solutions that Agilent has developed to assist analytical scientists in their work. The Agilent InfinityLab LC Solutions described here include those that increase sample throughput, boost uptime, and maximize space utilization. Every single tool was designed to be robust, intuitive, and a joy to use, and ultimately, to boost lab productivity, profits, and employee satisfaction.

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Liquid chromatography (LC) is a powerful technique for the separation, identification, and quantification of target analytes in complex media such as biomatrices. LC offers target assay flexibility, multiple detection modes, and can be highly automated — all of these are ideal features to be applied to the analysis of high sample numbers or for research purposes in the modern clinical laboratory. With the introduction of ever-more-powerful and easier-to-use mass spectrometry (MS) detectors at an affordable price point, LC-MS has become increasingly influential as a routine, investigative tool for clinical testing, therapeutic/dose monitoring, and the screening of disease states including quantitative and qualitative biomarker profiling.

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Digitalization of materials innovation in the chemicals industry has the potential to accelerate innovation, but often proves challenging. We discuss various success criteria, including:
• Adaptability to implement a highly diverse set of research workflows
• A clear strategy on how to leverage data that will be captured
• An approach to R&D IT infrastructure that reduces complexity

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Evaporation is one of the most common tasks performed in a chemistry laboratory. But how do you go about selecting the correct vacuum pump for your rotary evaporator? Or, if you already have a vacuum pump, how do you know whether it is well-suited for this application? The key to correctly selecting and sizing a vacuum pump for rotary evaporation can be found in your answers to the four questions posed in this Application Note.

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There are more than 20 different commercially available grades of high purity water, plus equipment and technology for producing these water grades in-house. This white paper is intended to help readers navigate the selection process for many different grades of high purity water and their various applications, and to help determine whether to produce the required water in-house or to outsource.

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Colloidal silica’s diverse range of uses in research and in industry continues to expand. These nanoscale particles of amorphous silica boast a range of attributes, such as high stability, hardness and excellent binding ability, thanks to the tunable chemistry of the particles’ silanol-rich surface. Applications for colloidal silica now range from metal-casting molds to drug-resistant bacterial biofilms. Find out how scientists are using colloidal silica to address critical global challenges.

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UHPLC has now been widely adopted within many industry sectors for both routine analysis and method development, due to reduced analysis times. The application of novel stationary phase chemistries that maximize selectivity in UHPLC have only enhanced the technique’s appeal with method developers. This white paper explores these key advantages of UHPLC and demonstrates how the latest column technology and novel chemistries can be applied to accelerate both method development and routine analysis.

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Rotary evaporators are the workhorse machines of organic chemistry, from academic labs to pharmaceutical R&D and the rapidly growing cannabis oil industry. The fundamental design of rotavaps had changed little over the past 50 years. Now, a new rotavap design, based on a highly efficient combined chiller/condenser unit, has been developed by US company Ecodyst. The Ecodyst is compact, fast, efficient, and readily scalable from research- to industrial-scale.

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Drug discovery has historically centered around a relatively small subset of “druggable” targets. But, in the race to be first-in-class, multiple companies pursue the same targets despite overcrowded markets. This means that to gain market share, later entrants will need to be the “best-in-class.” Now, data and analytics provide a better way to identify potential targets. In this eBook, we explore options and offer data-driven perspectives for how companies can take a fresh approach to identifying potential drug targets.

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Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy is a very sensitive method that has been successfully employed in the field of protein biochemistry. This method allows for the accurate characterization of the secondary structure of proteins in aqueous solutions as well as the identification and quantification of conformational changes. FTIR spectroscopy has proven to be very useful, especially in the field of pharmaceutical formulation of therapeutic proteins, such as Antibodies. Further, the routine determination of protein stability under varying conditions is a challenging task that is important for assessing long-term viability.

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Fused-Core® columns can deliver both fast and high resolution separations that allow chromatographers to choose the best combination of particle size and column geometry appropriate for their methods and their instrumentation. The application of 2 μm columns using appropriate instrumentation provides more separation power than previously available using 2.7 μm SPP columns. For ultra-fast, high-throughput separations of samples in 96–384 well plates, ultra-high resolution separations of impurities in new and generic pharmaceuticals, complex environmental sample separations and challenging LC-MS separations, Fused-Core columns can deliver superior results, both accurately and reproducibly, in a timely manner.

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Flash column chromatography is the preferred purification technique for many applications since it is a highly efficient method that provides chemists with a large variety of variables to manipulate to accomplish the desired level of purity. Whether you are an organic or medicinal chemist, are screening natural products, or working with peptides, this white paper gives you clear guidance in how to succeed in purifying your target compound.

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The influx of poorly soluble compounds into the drug development pipeline is likely to continue unabated. Solid dispersions provide a formulation technique that is well-suited to help tackle solubility challenges. But are they a universal approach for all drug substances? This expert review presents strategies for selecting a suitable formulation technique for poorly soluble drugs and describes in detail the characteristics of amorphous solid dispersions (ASD), and methods of manufacturing including spray-drying and hot melt extrusion. Recent advances in screening and modelling techniques for predicting solubility are also discussed. In addition, details of commercial products using ASDs and an upward trend in the approval of solid dispersion-based formulations is highlighted.

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This whitepaper takes a look at how artificial intelligence (AI) has revolutionized the scientific research lab, with a focus on high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Readers will get a chance to learn how and why labs have begun to adapt to these advances in autonomous analytical instrumentation. AI has the potential to play a powerful role in automating HPLC. As developers are working to incorporate analytical intelligence into modern HPLCs, it’s a great time for researchers in the field to find out how AI can change chromatography as they know it—from optimizing methods to remote monitoring and auto-diagnostic capabilities.

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Soybean oil provides a cost-effective base material for a wide range of lubrication fluids while having an environmentally favorable footprint. There are good performance reasons for using soybean oil in lubricant formulations. It has well-established uses and supply chain infrastructure. New developments in chemical modifications and soybean agriculture are leading to more effective soy-based lubricant.

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In this white paper we look at reverse engineering existing drug products using Raman imaging. We show that the Renishaw RA802 Pharmaceutical Analyser can be used to successfully characterize innovator and generic products and facilitate deformulation activities, and can characterize the components, concentrations, particle sizes and distributions of the innovator formulation, allowing generic followers to adjust their processes in order to create equivalent products, or products which are strategically different.

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Researchers typically avoid using affinity tags in the purification of therapeutic proteins. Recently, one very short affinity tag—just four amino acids long—proved its worth for purifying a malaria vaccine candidate for clinical trials. This has opened the door to a range of novel protein-based malaria vaccine candidates, which are now either in or progressing toward clinical trials.

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The following is an excerpt from a presentation given by Lee Walko, USB consultant and biobased business development director with Omni Tech International, Ltd., at the Eastern Coatings Show 2019. The presentation includes the basics of soy chemistry in coatings, including the structure of a soy oil triglyceride, some reasons why soy is used in coatings, the basic building blocks of soy in coatings and future possibilities.

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This paper is about the ten tips and tricks – five old favorites and five new ones – that ChemDraw fans might have missed. Mainly because there are so many tips and tricks available in ChemDraw that it is difficult to know everything. Plus, there’s always a powerful, new release coming out so new functionality can go unnoticed.

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The white paper covers the challenges faced by North America’s manufacturing industry. And how, SGS used its proprietary data and innovative methodologies to identify common pain points in all North America’s manufacturing sectors, which includes chemical and ingredients manufacturing. By streamlining the auditing process with a Single Audit Solution and using pioneering techniques to turn data into digital intelligence, SGS is helping manufacturers rise to the challenges created by today’s global markets.

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Per- and Polyfluorinated Alkyl Substances (PFAS) are a group of anthropogenic chemicals that are highly stable and resistant to degradation. These chemicals are manufactured and used in many consumer and industrial products. As these PFAS compounds are persistent, toxic and potentially harmful to humans, the leaching and presence of PFAS in our environment have raised serious concerns globally. This white paper summarizes the state-of-the-art analytical methods for monitoring PFAS and demonstrates the use, speed and performance of Ultra-fast Mass Spectrometry (UFMS™) for PFAS analysis in environmental waters. The described method consists of a simple methanol dilution, followed by a direct injection to LC-MS/MS, for rapid, reliable and highly sensitive quantitation of PFAS in environmental waters.

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The demand for cleaner, higher-purity biopharmaceuticals is pushing the frontiers of residual protein detection methods. New applications of antibody-based methods and qPCR rise to meet the challenge. ProteinSEQ, a powerful assay method, delivers dependable results and minimal background noise within a vast detection range.

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The demand for cleaner, higher-purity biopharmaceuticals is pushing the frontiers of residual protein detection methods. New applications of antibody-based methods and qPCR rise to meet the challenge. ProteinSEQ, a powerful assay method, delivers dependable results and minimal background noise within a vast detection range.

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Inexpensive compact mass spectrometers are expected to continue their charge into university teaching laboratories, where their speed, usability and robustness are enabling – in many cases, for the first time – undergraduate students to have hands-on experience with an instrument that they are increasingly likely to encounter if they progress through a scientific career.

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Aqueous colloidal silica, essentially made of just sand and water, is turning up in surprising ways at the forefront of research. A new collection of case studies highlights some of the exciting ways academic researchers are using colloidal silica to expand the frontiers of materials science. Nano-zeolites, bijels, and soft robots are among the novel applications featured in this new ebook: “Colloidal Silica: Small Particles, Enormous Potential”.

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Automation in chemistry can repeatably and reliably perform chemical reactions at a reduced reaction scale. These attributes enable the researcher to explore a larger set of chemical reaction conditions for DoE, solubility, reaction screening and process optimization to name a few. We present five examples of how automation solutions from Unchained Labs can be used by chemists to more thoroughly, quickly, and efficiently discover new reaction paths and conditions.

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Adhesives are indispensable in the automotive, aeronautic, and medical industries, among others. Modern adhesives are complex, and their quality requires an assessment of initial components as well as the final product. Molecular spectroscopy approaches, including FTIR and Raman, can be used to identify the components of a sample within seconds without any sample preparation, reagents, or consumables, offering a fast and effective route to glue analysis. Microspectroscopy can detect defects and inclusions on adhesive surface, while confocal Raman microscoscopy provides a unique capability: to analyze materials in depth without the need for a cross-section.

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As pharmaceutical companies have shifted their development focus to large-molecule biotherapeutics, the ability to separate intact monoclonal antibodies and antibody-drug conjugates for characterization purposes has become extremely important. To enable this characterization work, new LC particle technology has been required. The large 1000 Å pore size of the superficially porous particles used for RPLC described herein enables full access to the bonded phase surface for larger biomolecules. This improved access to the bonded surface produces narrower peak widths and enhanced resolution of minor mAb variants, and can lead to increased retention under most analysis conditions. Together, with new mass spectrometric instrumentation and software, wide-pore superficially porous particle LC columns will greatly aid in the advancement of large-molecule biopharmaceutical characterization and development. The recent expansion of the very large pore superficially porous particle family to include three bonded phases (C4, C18, Diphenyl) permits very high resolution separations of lower abundance protein variants, permitting structure analysis and quantification of these variants.

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This whitepaper aims to provide pharmaceutical researchers a better understanding of the uses and benefits of hybrid silica-based supports in HPLC separations of drug compounds. In a quick, absorbing read that includes commentary from a number of experts in the field, readers can find out how hybrid silica-based chromatography rose to popularity in the pharma lab, and why. The many benefits of hybrid silica materials are compared and contrasted with traditional silica usage, supported by references and examples from end users.

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Identification and quantification of impurities in pharmaceuticals is critical throughout drug development and manufacture to ensure product quality. There are significant risks when using a qualitative certified reference standard for a quantitative analysis. Learn how the characterization of reference standards can dramatically reduce the risk of out of specification investigations, lengthy toxicity studies, and even the loss of entire batches.

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Crystallization of active pharmaceutical ingredients is critical to the successful development and manufacture of medications. However, crystallization challenges are common and can negatively affect pharmaceutical development and complicate regulatory filings. This whitepaper identifies strategies to overcome those challenges to meet the demands of today’s pharmaceutical industry.

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A successful high-throughput approach to reaction screening requires a rational and systematic exploration of a broad set of variables to achieve optimization. Even with the aid of high-throughput screening tools, it’s still unlikely that all the possible combinations of reaction variables a process chemist desires can be screened. A well-planned high-throughput approach enables scientists to more clearly see the “big picture,” quickly abandon suboptimal strategies, and rapidly pinpoint advantageous conditions.

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Increased peak capacity provided by the TIMS technology coupled to a QTOF mass spectrometer and the PASEF acquisition mode together with novel chromatographic separation technology provides beneficial separation to analyze 200 samples per day. The high speed of the new mass spectrometer enables measurement at sufficient analytical depth and robustness and is ideally-suited for the measurement of large sample cohorts.

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Chemical manufacturing such as polyurethane production is characterized by a cost intensive production process combined with a negative ecological impact. These adverse effects can be significantly improved by using vibrational spectroscopy. This analytical technique can assist the operator of the plant to reduce costs and minimize the impact on the environment.

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Monoclonal antibody (mAb) therapeutics have been widely used to treat various diseases, including cancer. Oftentimes, dimers and other high molecular weight aggregates are present in the mAb therapeutics, leading to reduced biological activity. Traditionally-used methods for aggregate removal rely heavily on anion exchange chromatography (AEX) in flow-through mode followed by a generic bind/elute polishing step. While there are several advantages associated with these methods, they are often time-consuming and expensive. This whitepaper reports the use of hydrophobic interaction chromatography (HIC) in lieu of the generic bind/elute polishing step, for the removal of aggregates from mAb therapeutics. HIC is a more simple and cost-effective method, leading to higher selectivity towards mAb aggregate removal.

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Pharmaceuticals play a prominent role worldwide. This widespread presence is met with regulatory requirements at each phase of pharmaceutical development and manufacturing—from inspection of raw materials to quality control of final products. Consistently producing pharmaceuticals that both continue to satisfy the consumer and adhere to regulatory mandates, requires analytical methods, instruments, and systems that ensure quality standards are upheld throughout the pharmaceutical industry. In the following chapters, you will discover relevant analytical techniques, useful industry examples, and tips for assuring continued compliance with the latest regulations.

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A surprisingly large number of materials have unpaired electrons. These include free radicals, many transition metal ions, and defects in materials. Free radicals are often short-lived, but play crucial roles in many significant processes such as photosynthesis, oxidation, catalysis, and polymerization reactions. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy is the only method for the direct detection of species that have unpaired electrons, and its applications span one of the widest ranges of any analytical technique.

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In this study the Toxtyper is used for drug screening in drug consumption rooms which are seen as an important element to minimize drug-related health problems (e.g. infection risk) and promote contact of drug users with employees of drug help programs.

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The use of microbial fermentation to make biologics is growing rapidly. A manufacturing platform is an increasingly popular way to speed up process development stages and get a biologic to market faster. High-throughput systems can speed up optimization of each of these platform steps. Single-use, disposable technologies are starting to replace stainless steel to streamline biologic manufacturing, reduce costs, minimize contamination risks and allow rapid expansion of capacity.

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The genome has given clinical researchers a powerful tool for understanding the biological foundations of many diseases, but it only tells part of the story. This ebook shows how different laboratories are employing mass spectrometry and other cutting-edge tools to collect richer datasets based on a combination of multiple ‘omes’, including the proteome, metabolome and transcriptome. Through the integrated analysis of these molecular profiles, researchers can glean insights that would be impossible to obtain with any one dataset alone—for example, the mutations in the genome can be a poor predictor of actual gene expression or protein production. The case reports presented in this collection show how these multi-omic analyses can potentially lead to earlier and more accurate research predications, and ultimately, to possible individualized treatment regimens.

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This study describes a new method of quantifying different types of microplastics in environmental samples using FTIR imaging. The method utilized was able to successfully recover, identify, and quantify microplastics in organic-rich samples such as sediment, water, and fish. The method utilized FTIR imaging, combined with the MPhunter software and proved to be a rapid and accurate way to automatically identify and quantify microplastics and other materials. Combined with H2O2 oxidation, FTIR imaging is a strong candidate to be a standard method in microplastic analysis, allowing further study and understanding of microplastics in the environment.

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There are currently a half-dozen different insulin analogues on the market. These differ from each other and from natural insulin by just a few amino acids, but exhibit markedly different pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties. Liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry (LC-MS) offers a powerful tool for the sensitive and quantitative detection and discrimination of these highly similar recombinant proteins. This whitepaper reviews the considerations that analytical chemists should take into account when planning to undertake LC-MS analysis of an insulin analogue-containing specimen.

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As plastics continue to enter the environment, understanding their global impact is vital to addressing microplastic pollution. Since its emergence as an environmental and potential human health threat, researchers have strived to develop tools for accurately measuring microplastics in environmental and food matrices using FTIR-based techniques and automated data handling. This study examines the current status of methods of microplastic quantification and identification and presents the analysis of microplastics smaller than 10 microns in a sample of soil from a marina using FTIR imaging, combined with a free software program, MPhunter.

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A drug discovery research project can be made more efficient, with reduced costs and increased likelihood for success, through optimal handling of the diverse information the project generates. The discovery team is inherently data driven, and the volume of data generated is often overwhelming, discipline-specific, and difficult to interpret. Modern informatics systems can help make that data conveniently available, and user friendly visualization renders it readily interpretable by all members of the project team.

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Chemists working in academic research, industry, and non-profit organizations alike face mounting challenges in data management. C&EN and software provider ACD/Labs commissioned a survey to better understand how laboratories currently manage their analytical data. Do researchers feel they are able to adequately manipulate, share, and retrieve data? Are they confident in data accuracy?

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In this white paper, it will be demonstrated that the use of three HILIC phases, which provide very different and complementary selectivity to one another, is both practical and effective for HILIC method development. These selectivity differences can be exploited, together with mobile phase pH, to thoroughly explore selectivity and to enable selection of an appropriate stationary phase/mobile phase combination during HILIC method development. A systematic, step-by-step approach to method development is recommended to make it easier for chromatographers to develop new HILIC methods in a productive manner.

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Hydrogen peroxide and peracetic acid are versatile oxidizing agents that combine powerful oxidation with exceptional environmental compatibility. Their bona fide green chemistry credentials should help every modern chemist appreciate their potential applications. This comprehensive ebook delves into the myriad applications for hydrogen peroxide and peracetic acid, with chapters highlighting their role in chemical synthesis, aseptic packaging, and environmental applications such as wastewater treatment. This ebook can be downloaded in its entirety or as individual chapters. The chapters cover the roles of hydrogen peroxide and peracetic acid in chemical synthesis, aseptic packaging and wastewater treatment. Please choose if you would like to download the entire ebook or one of the chapters.

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This white paper highlights six key points that pharmaceutical and biotechnology companies should keep in mind when looking to select the ideal partner to synthesize an API for them—and ensure their drug development process stays on the path to success.

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The whitepaper describes the latest advances in methods, hardware, and software for intact mass analysis. It desribes how these advances could be combined to further push the boundaries for intact mass analysis for complex heterogenous biologic samples.

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This whitepaper explores how LC/MS analysis of intact therapeutic antibodies can be performed with high accuracy and sensitivity down to subnanogram levels for molecular weight confirmation and assessment of isoform pattern. For the analysis of more complex molecules, such as antibody-drug conjugates, native mass spectrometry is beneficial to characterize the sample and obtain the accurate drug-to-antibody ration.

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Liquid chromatography and mass spectrometery (LC-MS) have transformed the field of proteomics, enabling researchers to rapidly survey the contents of complex biological samples. However, until relatively recently it has proven challenging and labor-intensive to perform accurate comparisons across multiple samples.

Tandem mass tags (TMT) have proven to be a transformative tool in this regard. Using TMT technology, researchers can add isobaric labels to multiple samples, which can then be analyzed in a single tandem MS experiment. These capabilities are making it possible to sensitively detect rare peptide species, to identify differences between healthy and diseased tissue, and conduct sophisticated surveys of the cellular proteome. This ebook provides an overview of the TMT technology, and offers five case studies that illustrate some of the cutting-edge applications for which these reagents are being used.

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The dominant technology of modern proteomics is certainly liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). However, it is safe to say that the primary discussion point in terms of technology in proteomics has been the mass spectrometry part of this partnership. A great deal of emphasis is placed on the mass spectrometer and the data generated by it.

However, there has been less focus and emphasis placed on the separations of peptides and proteins prior to analysis by mass spectrometry in terms of the nano-LC chromatography systems and columns contributing to proteomics performance. One half of the LC-MS combination has been neglected.

Therefore it seemed to the authors that it was time this imbalance was redressed. The following handbook has been produced in an attempt to educate and inform on the relevance and significance to proteomics of liquid chromatography, in particular reversed-phase nano-LC directly coupled to MS.

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Compact mass spectrometers (CMS) have revolutionized reaction monitoring, turning a once laborious and time-consuming task into a rapid and convenient process with instruments right at the chemist's bench or fume hood. These instrument can provide results in as few as 30 seconds, are cost-effective, and offer a growing number of sample techniques. This report reviews the advantages and applications of CMS systems as well as some case studies in their use.

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The coatings industry, just like every other segment of the chemical industry, is innovating in response to new and expanding environmental regulations. As one of the world's biggest users of chemical ingredients, coatings manufacturers are under intense pressure to meet new standards but also provide affordable and efficient products. Innovative companies have responded with new additives that help achieve goals such as reducing levels of hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) and volatile organic compounds (VOC), as well as making certain that coatings that come in contact with foods are up to today's safety standards.

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Compact mass spectrometers (CMS) have revolutionized reaction monitoring, turning a once laborious and time-consuming task into a rapid and convenient process with instruments right at the chemist's bench or fume hood. These instrument can provide results in as few as 30 seconds, are cost-effective, and offer a growing number of sample techniques. This report reviews the advantages and applications of CMS systems as well as some case studies in their use.

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From protein folding to the function of medicines in the body, water is essential to countless chemical reactions that sustain life. Recently, the advent of liquid cell transmission electron microscopy has brought these tiny interactions to light with high-resolution imaging. Using customizable sample holders, researchers are now performing water-based science experiments inside the electron microscope.

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Homogeneous, assembled, digitized analytical data lends itself to be included in the stream of meaningful data exchange between external organizations and data-sharing inside organizations. This organization and data transformation is necessary to effectively build the ‘data-to-information-to-knowledge’ lineage that enables managers to make strategic and tactical decisions; to maximize benefits, and limit risks. This paper provides commentary on efforts for analytical data standardization and a vision of the broader considerations and requirements that such an undertaking should include.

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Ongoing evolution of new designer drugs, also known as new psychoactive substances (NPS), requires continuous updating of screening methods when determining the suspected role of NPS in deaths. The open library concept of the Toxtyper system allows for rapid updates of methods linked to the appearance of new drugs.

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Increases in regulatory scrutiny on consumer safety, shifts in popular perception and the urgency to stay in front of chemical resistance curves all impact the agricultural chemicals industry. Meanwhile, food demands increase as the global population continues to soar. Modern agricultural chemicals R&D teams are under more pressure than ever to deliver cutting-edge synthetic pesticides, herbicides and fertilizers to market while balancing regulatory, social and technical demands.

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For many years pharmaceutical companies have taken a deliberate approach for creating new small molecule drugs for disease treatment. These new chemical entities and their analogs were often synthesized in large numbers and then tested for efficacy for treatment of various diseases…

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Analytical testing across the broad commercial range of consumer products is essential to ensure the safety of end users, support the continuous supply of quality offerings to the marketplace, protect a company’s brand and reputation,and meet regulatory requirements...

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Genotoxic impurities (GTIs) are intermediates or reactants that can develop during the synthesis of a drug substance. In addition to process impurities, certain drugs may generate GTIs via degradation during formulation or storage...

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The agrochemicals industry has come under increasing pressure to bring to market new, less costly, and highly effective crop protection products with reduced environmental footprint compared to traditional herbicides and pesticides...

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Measuring viscosity is a tried and true technique for characterizing fluids. But frequently viscosity measurements are not made correctly and accordingly do not provide reliable or meaningful information...

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The pharmaceutical and biopharma industry continues to experience solid growth in an expanding global market. This market growth has been accompanied by an ever-changing industry landscape, with consolidation among long-time "big pharma" leaders, ongoing mergers and acquisitions, and the emergence of start-ups and technology-based offshoots from academic laboratories...

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The emergence of new and increasingly complex synthetic biopolymers, novel polymers, and polymer additives with a broad range of structural and compositional diversity has been a driving force in the development of advanced separation and analytical technologies for polymer characterization...

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End-to-end automation of an integrated liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) workflow for target screening applications is readily achievable and yields substantial advantages...

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Laboratory based organizations face a wide variety of unaddressed data management challenges, and yet ultimately their scientific data is the currency with which they trade...

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There is growing need for research groups to adopt a Laboratory Information Management System (LIMS). A reliable, flexible and easy-to-use LIMS is an increasingly essential research tool that enables...

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Proteomics techniques are rapidly evolving to become a highly sensitive, quantitative, and high-throughput approach to analyzing global protein dynamics within a cell, tissue or an organism...

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Cannabis testing is a rapidly growing business expected to exceed $8 billion in 2017. It is fueled by many factors including consumer demand, evolving legislation, and growing evidence of the benefits of medical marijuana, which is now legal in 23 states and the District of Columbia...

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Manufacturers of pharmaceuticals, drug delivery systems, and biomedical devices have come under growing pressure to perform sensitive and accurate analytical studies to detect, identify, and quantify extractable and leachable compounds (E&Ls)...

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The constant need to develop more rapid and cost-effective technologies for accurate, sensitive and specific detection in biological samples is a driving force behind the integration of new sample preparation tools, automation and informatics across the bioanalytical workflow...

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