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by Victoria Gilman
January 17, 2005 | A version of this story appeared in Volume 83, Issue 3

Horatio H. (Ray) Krause, a research chemist retired from Battelle Memorial Institute in Columbus, Ohio, died on Aug. 5, 2004, at the age of 85.

Krause received his B.S. from St. Mary's College, Winona, Minn., and a Ph.D. in chemistry from the University of Minnesota. Following graduation, he enjoyed a 40-year career at Battelle.

Krause was an expert in high-temperature corrosion and oxidation. His research involved explosive reactions of molten salts and water, formation of inorganic polymers under extreme pressure, and high-temperature solid lubricants. He pioneered the concept of using thermodynamic properties of compounds to predict the usefulness of solid lubricants in high-temperature systems.

Krause was an active member of the ACS Columbus Section, serving as chair in 1985, councilor from 1988 to 1990, alternate councilor from 1980 to 1982 and from 1991 to 1996, chair of the education committee, and a member of the program and membership committees. He also coordinated the section's visiting scientist program. For his contributions, Krause received the 1998 Columbus Section Award.

Krause was preceded in death by two brothers. He is survived by his wife, Marguerite; a son; a daughter; a granddaughter; and a brother. Joined ACS in 1954.


Ali Massoumi, a quality-control specialist with the Environmental Restoration Program at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), died on July 28, 2004, at the age of 71.

Massoumi received a B.S. with honors from Tehran University, in Iran, and a Ph.D. from Imperial College London. He was a professor of analytical chemistry at Iran's Shiraz University for 28 years, during which time he also served as chair of the chemistry department and dean of the College of Arts & Sciences.

In the 1990s, Massoumi joined the facultys at the National University and Free University in Tehran. He is credited as one of the pioneers in modern chemistry curriculum development in Iran. He also served as a visiting scientist at LBNL and as a visiting professor at a number of internationally renowned institutions, including the University of California, Berkeley; the University of Oslo, Norway; and the University of Mainz, Germany.

Massoumi is survived by his wife, Patricia; a son; a daughter; and two grandchildren. Joined ACS in 1967.

Gerald J. (Jerry) Small, distinguished professor of chemistry at Iowa State University and a senior chemist at the Department of Energy's Ames Laboratory, died on Aug. 7, 2004, at the age of 63.

A native of Vancouver, British Columbia, Small graduated from the University of British Columbia with a B.S. with honors in both chemistry and mathematics. After receiving a Ph.D. in physical chemistry from the University of Pennsylvania in 1967, Small became a postdoctoral fellow at the Australian National University, Canberra. He joined the Iowa State faculty in 1969.

While at Iowa State, Small developed novel, powerful spectroscopic tools for the study of such diverse topics as fast solar energy conversion in photosynthetic units, chemical separation techniques, and laser-based bioanalysis of DNA damage and repair in chemical carcinogenesis. His research contributions were celebrated in a special issue of the Journal of Physical Chemistry in July 2004 that was dedicated in his honor.

Small's research led to the discovery of incredibly sensitive methods to distinguish between normal cells and cancer cells. Small and his longtime scientific collaborator, Ryszard Jankowiak, developed a device that permits detection of DNA-carcinogen interactions at the femtomole level, an achievement that earned them a prestigious R&D 100 Award in 1998.

Small was recognized for his work with the award of an Alfred P. Sloan Foundation fellowship from 1974 to 1978, and with election as a fellow of the American Physical Society. He served on the editorial advisory boards of the Journal of Chemical Physics, Chemical Physics, the Journal of Physical Chemistry, Chemical Research in Toxicology, and Spectrochimica Acta.

Small is survived by two sons; two grandchildren; and his former wife, Sharon. Joined ACS in 1987.



Peter E. Yankwich, a former professor of chemistry and vice president of academic affairs at the University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign (UIUC), died on Dec. 1, 2004, at the age of 81.

A native of Los Angeles, Yankwich received a B.S. in chemistry in 1943, followed by a Ph.D. in physical chemistry in 1945 from the University of California, Berkeley. In 1944, he joined the scientific staff of the UC Radiation Laboratory, where he worked for two years on the Manhattan Project and, in 1946, became a founding member of the lab's Bio-Organic Group.

In 1948, Yankwich became an instructor in the UC Berkeley chemistry department. He left a year later to join the faculty at UIUC, where he stayed until 1988. From 1962 to 1967, he served as head of UIUC's division of physical chemistry, and from 1977 to 1982, he was the school's vice president for academic affairs.

Yankwich was internationally recognized for his research in isotope rate effects, including how isotope mass affects reaction rates. He also focused on the chemical effects of nuclear transformations and on using radiocarbon tracers to study chemical reaction mechanisms.

In addition to his work at UIUC, Yankwich served on the National Science Foundation's Advisory Council on College Chemistry during the whole of its existence from 1962 to 1968. He moved to Washington, D.C., in 1985 to join the NSF staff, serving on the Education Directorate until 1999.

Throughout his career, Yankwich was a leading contributor to the advancement of chemical education. He was appointed to the ACS Chemistry Education Planning & Coordinating Committee in 1971, and served as committee chair from 1974 to 1977. Yankwich was also chair of the ACS Education Commission from 1978 to 1981. In addition to his education-related activities, he was chair of the ACS Division of Physical Chemistry from 1971 to 1972 and was an elected member-at-large of the ACS Board of Directors from 1982 to 1988.

In 1982, Yankwich organized a chemistry education task force that published a 1984 report entitled "Tomorrow," which offered specific recommendations for improving chemistry education in the U.S. from kindergarten to postdoctoral studies.

In his personal life, Yankwich enjoyed reading Homeric Greek, savoring German Christmas cookies, and listening to opera. Friends and family will perhaps most remember him for his love of the various English springer spaniels he owned.

Yankwich is survived by his wife, Elizabeth; a daughter; two sons; two grandchildren; and a sister. Joined ACS in 1945; emeritus member.

Obituaries are written by Victoria Gilman.
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