Three U.S. producers of carbon black will collectively pay nearly $2.5 million to settle alleged air pollution violations, the Environmental Protection Agency announced late last month. EPA says the companies failed to obtain needed Clean Air Act permits and did not install required technology to control sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, and particulate matter. For alleged violations at plants in Louisiana and Texas, Sid Richardson Carbon & Energy will pay civil penalties of $999,000 and spend $490,000 to reduce its particulate emissions, its consent decree says. Orion Engineered Carbons will pay a civil penalty of $800,000 and spend $550,000 on installation of pollution control technology at its facilities in Louisiana, Ohio, and Texas, according to its consent decree. Some of Orion’s payments will be covered by an agreement that the company has with Evonik, from which Orion bought four facilities in 2011. Columbian Chemicals will pay a civil penalty of $650,000 and spend $375,000 to reduce particulate matter emissions at plants in Louisiana and Kansas, its consent deal says.