Volume 96 Issue 4 | p. 14 | News of The Week
Issue Date: January 22, 2018 | Web Date: January 18, 2018

U.S. dominance waning in science and engineering

R&D investments by China and other nations continue upward trend, report says
Department: Government & Policy
Keywords: Policy, science and engineering, workforce, data
Other U.S. numbers from the NSB report

16% Percentage of patents related to chemistry and health in 2016, down from 20% in 2000

6.7% R&D intensitya of chemical manufacturing in 2015, compared to 3.9% overall for U.S.

11% Percentage of chemicals sector R&D funding provided by foreign sources, compared to 5% overall for U.S.

5.1% Percentage of chemistry publications out of 409,000 in Scopus in 2016; China, India, Japan, and the EU all had higher percentages of chemistry publications

76% Percentage of students who began high school in 2009 who took chemistry during high school; 98% took biology and 42% took physics.

R&D intensity is spending on R&D as a percentage of overall sales.
Source: Science & Engineering Indicators 2018

The U.S. continues to lead the world in science and engineering, but other nations are making quick progress that threatens U.S. supremacy. Science & Engineering Indicators 2018, released earlier this month by the National Science Board (NSB), shows that the U.S. and Europe no longer dominate international science. Instead, many nations are increasingly competing on equal footing, with China leading a pack of countries that see science as a way to build a modern, successful economy.

“It is very clear that China is placing great emphasis on developing its science and technology capabilities,” says University of Oregon chemist Geraldine Richmond, who chaired the NSB committee that created the report. China’s investment in R&D has averaged increases of 18% a year since 2000, a sustained growth rate that Richmond called “quite remarkable.” The U.S., by contrast, has averaged 4 to 5% growth over that same period, primarily fueled by business investment because U.S. federal government funding for research has remained flat or declined.

China’s investment is not just financial. China now produces more undergraduate science and engineering majors than any other country worldwide. The U.S., by contrast, produces just 10% of worldwide science and engineering majors. The U.S. continues to award more doctoral degrees than any other nation, though 40% of those go to temporary residents. Historically, two-thirds of doctoral degree recipients have stayed in the U.S., but the report shows those from China and India are returning home at increasing rates. After steady increases since 2012, the number of graduate students in the U.S. declined in 2017.

The U.S. has had a hard time recruiting more science students internally, especially from minority groups, points out France Córdova, director of NSF, which is overseen by the NSB. To remain successful, she says, “we will need to broaden the participation of our citizens in STEM.”

Chemical & Engineering News
ISSN 0009-2347
Copyright © American Chemical Society
Gino Miranda (Mon Jan 22 13:24:17 EST 2018)
The NSB report is retrospective and this CEN blurb reflects such a view. More troubling, though, is that the prospects for science and technology in the US are going downwards at a faster rate than the past few years indicate. Ignorant propaganda and those who profit from it are taking a toll on the credibility and value of science, and is overtaking the honest efforts from educators to turn children on to science; this effect is most pronounced with minority groups, hence we cannot rely on expanding participation of that group as the solution to this devastating situation. Moreover, without a steady stream of the best and brightest young minds coming to the US from other countries, the supply of human resources for science, more than research funding availability, will be the real crisis to be dealt with in the next decade or two. The current trend is depressing and if it is not reversed very soon by a national and public will to do that, it will result in an irreversible drop for the US from the once held position of top world leader in science and technology.
John Tiessen (Wed Jan 24 17:56:03 EST 2018)
I once had a tech service employee who was unpopular with the sales force. He was a genius at fixing problems in the field, but would follow up by saying "you get what you pay for." Since virtually all the product failures involved less expensive products, he was instantly unpopular with both the customer and the sales force. It appears that his role is now mine. Based on our voting patterns it is reasonable to conclude that Americans have been unwilling to pay the true cost of scientific progress and the infrastructure that supports it; not just recently but for a long time. Sorry fellow citizens, but YOU GET WHAT YOU PAY FOR. There is also no free lunch, in case you had your hopes up.
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