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References used to create this graphic:
Boo, Sung Ho, and Yoon Ki Kim. “The Emerging Role of RNA Modifications in the Regulation of mRNA Stability.” Exp. Mol. Med. (2020). DOI: 10.1038/s12276-020-0407-z.
Pardi, Norbert, Michael J. Hogan, Rebecca S. Pelc, Hiromi Muramatsu, Hanne Andersen, Christina R. DeMaso, Kimberly A. Dowd, et al. “Zika Virus Protection by a Single Low-Dose Nucleoside-Modified mRNA Vaccination.” Nature (2017). DOI: 10.1038/nature21428.
Smith, Jesse. “Decoding Moderna’s Covid-19 Vaccine Ingredients.” Medium Coronavirus Blog, Medium, Dec. 4, 2020. https://coronavirus.medium.com/decoding-modernas-covid-19-vaccine-ingredients-23ea87c5f234 .
Steinle, Heidrun, Andreas Behring, Christian Schlensak, Hans Peter Wendel, and Meltem Avci‐Adali. “Concise Review: Application of In Vitro Transcribed Messenger RNA for Cellular Engineering and Reprogramming: Progress and Challenges.” Stem Cells (2016). DOI:10.1002/stem.2402.
A collaboration between C&EN and Andy Brunning, author of the popular graphics blog Compound Interest
To see more of Brunning’s work, go to compoundchem.com. To see all of C&EN’s Periodic Graphics, visit http://cenm.ag/periodicgraphics.