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Safety

Smiling bracelet monitors personal UV exposure

Simple, inexpensive sensor can be configured based on a user’s skin tone

by Erika Gebel Berg, special to C&EN
September 26, 2018 | APPEARED IN VOLUME 96, ISSUE 39

 

09639-scicon9-smileyfaces.jpg
Credit: Wenyue Zou
This simple bracelet monitors a wearer’s UV exposure.

With a series of emoji-like faces, an inexpensive bracelet can tell users when they’ve been exposed to too much ultraviolet light (Nat. Comm. 2018, DOI: 10.1038/s41467-018-06273-3). The bracelets can be configured for different skin tones, allowing wearers to get the right dose of UV light for their personal pigmentation.

09639-scicon9-smiles.jpg
Credit: Nat. Comm.
With sun exposure, blue faces start to appear on paper strips printed with a mixture of phosphomolybdic and lactic acids. The number of blue faces corresponds to the dose of UV, with the appearance of one, two, three, and four blue faces representing 25, 50, 75, and 100% of safe exposure thresholds, respectively.

Although people know to seek shade and apply sunblock to avoid the sun’s damaging UV light, a little sunlight can be healthy. Some sun exposure helps our bodies produce vitamin D. The trick is to not to overdo it and risk skin cancer.

Another complication is that sunlight contains a mixture of UV light. “We can tolerate 1,000 times more UVA than we can UVB,” before risking sunburn, says Vipul Bansal of RMIT University, Melbourne. Electronic UV sensors can distinguish between UVA and UVB but can be bulky and expensive. Color-changing chemical UV sensors are smaller and less costly, but treat all UV light the same.

Bansal wanted a chemical that could differentiate lower-energy UVA from higher-energy UVB. “I was hunting for chemicals that could do this job for the past seven to eight years,” he says. He found a promising candidate in phosphomolybdic acid, a polyoxometalate with multiple redox states. In the presence of an electron donor, such as lactic acid, and UV light, phosphomolybdic acid gets reduced, changing from a colorless molecule to a deep blue one. The redox state and the extent of the color change is dependent, in part, on the energy of the UV light.

Using a mixture of phosphomolybdic and lactic acids, the researchers painted emoji-like faces onto four 15-mm-diameter circles of paper lined up on a wristband. The face on the farthest left had the most enthusiastic phosphomolybdic grin, followed to the right by less and less happy faces, and finally a serious frown on the far right. Also, moving from left to right, the researchers covered the faces with increasing numbers of light filters, such that the leftmost face was the most exposed to incoming light and the rightmost face was the most shielded.

In tests of the sensor, UVA produced minimal color changes and UVB generated significant dose-dependent changes. And as UV exposure increased, the faces became darker and darker blue, left to right, happy to sad.

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By adding and removing the filters, the researchers could calibrate the sensor such that each face indicated a specific percentage of a person’s safe UV exposure level. And they could tailor the bracelets for people’s skin tone by increasing the number of filters for people with more skin pigmentation.

The sensor’s ability to respond to different types of UV light is the most significant advance, says John Rogers of Northwestern University, who has developed a UV-sensing tattoo. “It’s really important to know UVB because it is more carcinogenic.” He wonders, though, whether people would use the device, as is. “For devices that are worn, the aesthetics and the fashion aspect turn out to be super important in terms of compliance,” he says.

CORRECTION:

This story was updated on Sep. 28 2018, to correct the size of the faces on the sensor bracelet.

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Comments
Marc (September 28, 2018 12:12 AM)
What we really need is a sensor that tells us when we are not getting enough sun exposure! A 20 year Swedish study demonstrated that women who were always seeking the sun had half the risk of all-cause death, compared to women who stayed indoors. A basic premises of this article is that sun exposure is dangerous. That premise is not true. Only burning is dangerous. Blocking too much sunlight can be dangerous, and the best way to avoid sun damage is to cover up or find shade when you have had enough. Conventional sunscreen is filled with toxic chemicals that may cause cancer. Avobenzone and oxybenzone are two of the worst. Sunscreen can block up to 99% of vitamin D production in the skin. Isn't it interesting that each year the use of sunscreen increases, and each year the risk of melanoma increases? It is not sun exposure that causes health problems; it is sun deprivation. The latest research shows that sunscreen is leading to widespread vitamin D deficiency. Here are more facts:
•Seventy-five percent of melanomas occur on areas of the body that are seldom or never exposed to sunlight.
•A Spanish study shows that women who seek the sun have one-eleventh the hip-fracture risk as those who avoid sun.
•Men who work outdoors have half the risk of melanoma as those who work indoors.
•Women who avoid the sun have 10-times the risk of breast cancer as those who embrace the sun.
• Sunbathing can produce up to 20,000 units of vitamin D in 20 minutes of whole-body exposure around noon
•Sun exposure improves mood through the production of serotonin and endorphin.
•There has also been an 8,300% increase in vitamin D deficiency in children since 2000, which is likely due to insufficient time playing outdoors and/or sunscreen use.
More information and references: http://sunlightinstitute.org. Or, read Dr. Marc Sorenson’s new book, Embrace the Sun, available at Amazon.

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