The Human Genome Project Through The Years
Department of Energy announces Human Genome Initiative
DOE national labs devote $5.3 million to developing critical resources and technologies after a conference in Santa Fe, N.M.
Human Genome Project begins
DOE and the National Institutes of Health present project plan to Congress, and the project formally begins.
Data-sharing guidelines released
DOE and NIH announce guidelines for data release and resource sharing.
1995 Pictomicrograph of Haemophilus influenzae as seen using the Gram-stain technique
Haemophilus influenzae sequence completed
The first bacterial genome is sequenced.
Credit: UC Berkeley Electron Microscope Lab
1996 Methanocaldococcus jannaschii
Methanocaldococcus jannaschii sequence completed
Credit: Wikimedia Commons
1996 Saccharomyces cerevisiae shown under differential interference microscopy.
The first archaeal genome is sequenced.
Human-subject guidelines released
DOE and NIH issue guidelines on use of human subjects for large-scale sequencing projects.
Yeast genome sequence completed
Saccharomyces cerevisiaegenome is sequenced by an international consortium.
Credit: Rocky Mountain Laboratories/NIAID/ NIH
1997 Scanning electron micrograph of Escherichia coli
Escherichia coli sequence completed
E. coli K-12 strain MG1655 genome is sequenced.
Credit: DOE/Joint Genome Institute
1997 Sequencing and analysis at DOE's Joint Genome Institute.
DOE forms Joint Genome Institute
Credit: Max Planck Institute for Developmental Biology
1998 Caenorhabditis elegans roundworm
New institute focuses on high-throughput sequencing and functional genomics.
Celera Genomics forms
Firm’s goal is to sequence the human genome in three years.
Roundworm sequence completed
Caenorhabditis elegans genome is sequenced.
Large-scale sequencing centers open
National Human Genome Research Institute (NHGRI) begins supporting large-scale sequencing centers.
Credit: Broad Institute
1999 Researchers working at an large-scale sequencing center
Draft of human genome sequence completed
Leaders celebrate its completion at the White House.
2000 Craig Venter (left) and Francis Collins, then NHGRI director, celebrate completion of the draft human genome sequence at the White House.
Fruit fly sequence is completed
2000 Drosophila melanogaster
Drosophila melanogaster genome is sequenced.
Draft of rat genome sequence published
Draft of rice genome sequence published
Human Genome Project ends
Credit: Clare McLean/University of Washington
2003 William Noble, professor of genome sciences and of computer science at the University of Washington, Seattle, designed artificial intelligence programs to analyze ENCODE data.
The project is officially declared over.
Credit: National Geographic Society
2005 A woman participates in the Genographic Project in Queens, N.Y.
NHGRI launches the Encyclopedia of DNA Elements, a public research effort to identify all functional elements in the human genome sequence.
Genographic Project begins
National Geographicmagazine and IBM launch the project to analyze historical patterns in DNA from people around the world to better understand human genetic roots.
Human Microbiome Project begins
NIH funds effort to characterize the microbial communities found at several sites on the human body.
Genetic Information Nondiscrimination Act becomes law
Credit: Eric Draper/White House
2008 President Bush signs the Genetic Information Nondiscrimination Act (GINA) of 2008.
President George W. Bush signs the act into law, which prohibits the use of genetic information for health insurance and employment.
Second-generation sequencers introduced
New sequencing platforms cause the cost of DNA sequencing to plummet, outpacing Moore's law.
1000 Genomes Project publishes paper
Project consortium publishes a pilot paper in Nature, showing genetic variation in 1,000 human genomes.
ENCODE results published
Results of the project, covering more than 4 million regulatory regions in the human genome, are published as a coordinated set of 30 papers in multiple journals.
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