The Human Genome Project Through The Years
Department of Energy announces Human Genome Initiative
DOE national labs devote $5.3 million to developing critical resources and technologies after a conference in Santa Fe, N.M.
Human Genome Project begins
DOE and the National Institutes of Health present project plan to Congress, and the project formally begins.
Data-sharing guidelines released
DOE and NIH announce guidelines for data release and resource sharing.
Pictomicrograph of Haemophilus influenzae as seen using the Gram-stain technique
Credit: UC Berkeley Electron Microscope Lab
Haemophilus influenzae sequence completed
The first bacterial genome is sequenced.
Methanocaldococcus jannaschii sequence completed
The first archaeal genome is sequenced.
Human-subject guidelines released
DOE and NIH issue guidelines on use of human subjects for large-scale sequencing projects.
Yeast genome sequence completed
Saccharomyces cerevisiaegenome is sequenced by an international consortium.
Saccharomyces cerevisiae shown under differential interference microscopy.
Credit: Wikimedia Commons
Scanning electron micrograph of Escherichia coli
Credit: Rocky Mountain Laboratories/NIAID/ NIH
Escherichia coli sequence completed
E. coli K-12 strain MG1655 genome is sequenced.
DOE forms Joint Genome Institute
New institute focuses on high-throughput sequencing and functional genomics.
Sequencing and analysis at DOE's Joint Genome Institute.
Credit: DOE/Joint Genome Institute
Caenorhabditis elegans roundworm
Credit: Max Planck Institute for Developmental Biology
Celera Genomics forms
Firm’s goal is to sequence the human genome in three years.
Roundworm sequence completed
Caenorhabditis elegans genome is sequenced.
Large-scale sequencing centers open
National Human Genome Research Institute (NHGRI) begins supporting large-scale sequencing centers.
Researchers working at an large-scale sequencing center
Credit: Broad Institute
Craig Venter (left) and Francis Collins, then NHGRI director, celebrate completion of the draft human genome sequence at the White House.
Draft of human genome sequence completed
Leaders celebrate its completion at the White House.
Fruit fly sequence is completed
Drosophila melanogaster genome is sequenced.
Draft of rat genome sequence published
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Draft of rice genome sequence published
Human Genome Project ends
The project is officially declared over.
NHGRI launches the Encyclopedia of DNA Elements, a public research effort to identify all functional elements in the human genome sequence.
William Noble, professor of genome sciences and of computer science at the University of Washington, Seattle, designed artificial intelligence programs to analyze ENCODE data.
Credit: Clare McLean/University of Washington
Genographic Project begins
National Geographicmagazine and IBM launch the project to analyze historical patterns in DNA from people around the world to better understand human genetic roots.
Human Microbiome Project begins
NIH funds effort to characterize the microbial communities found at several sites on the human body.
Genetic Information Nondiscrimination Act becomes law
President George W. Bush signs the act into law, which prohibits the use of genetic information for health insurance and employment.
A woman participates in the Genographic Project in Queens, N.Y.
Credit: National Geographic Society
President Bush signs the Genetic Information Nondiscrimination Act (GINA) of 2008.
Credit: Eric Draper/White House
Second-generation sequencers introduced
New sequencing platforms cause the cost of DNA sequencing to plummet, outpacing Moore's law.
1000 Genomes Project publishes paper
Project consortium publishes a pilot paper in Nature, showing genetic variation in 1,000 human genomes.
ENCODE results published
Results of the project, covering more than 4 million regulatory regions in the human genome, are published as a coordinated set of 30 papers in multiple journals.
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