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Biological Chemistry

Timeline: Human Genome Map Turns 10

by Britt E. Erickson
May 17, 2013 | APPEARED IN VOLUME 91, ISSUE 20

 

The Human Genome Project Through The Years

1986

Department of Energy announces Human Genome Initiative

DOE national labs devote $5.3 million to developing critical resources and technologies after a conference in Santa Fe, N.M.

1990

Human Genome Project begins

DOE and the National Institutes of Health present project plan to Congress, and the project formally begins.

1992

Data-sharing guidelines released

DOE and NIH announce guidelines for data release and resource sharing.

 

1995

09120-govpol1-1995haemophilus.jpg
Credit: CDC
1995 Pictomicrograph of Haemophilus influenzae as seen using the Gram-stain technique

Haemophilus influenzae sequence completed

The first bacterial genome is sequenced.

09120-govpol1-1996methanocaldococcus.jpg
Credit: UC Berkeley Electron Microscope Lab
1996 Methanocaldococcus jannaschii

1996

Methanocaldococcus jannaschii sequence completed

09120-govpol1-1996microscopycxd.jpg
Credit: Wikimedia Commons
1996 Saccharomyces cerevisiae shown under differential interference microscopy.

The first archaeal genome is sequenced.

1996

Human-subject guidelines released

DOE and NIH issue guidelines on use of human subjects for large-scale sequencing projects.

1996

Yeast genome sequence completed

Saccharomyces cerevisiaegenome is sequenced by an international consortium.

 

09120-govpol1-1997DOEJGIcxd.jpg
Credit: Rocky Mountain Laboratories/NIAID/ NIH
1997 Scanning electron micrograph of Escherichia coli

1997

Escherichia coli sequence completed

E. coli K-12 strain MG1655 genome is sequenced.

1997

09120-govpol1-1997ecoli.jpg
Credit: DOE/Joint Genome Institute
1997 Sequencing and analysis at DOE's Joint Genome Institute.

DOE forms Joint Genome Institute

09120-govpol1-1998caenorhabditiselegans.jpg
Credit: Max Planck Institute for Developmental Biology
1998 Caenorhabditis elegans roundworm

New institute focuses on high-throughput sequencing and functional genomics.

1998

Celera Genomics forms

Firm’s goal is to sequence the human genome in three years.

1998

Roundworm sequence completed

Caenorhabditis elegans genome is sequenced.

1999

Large-scale sequencing centers open

National Human Genome Research Institute (NHGRI) begins supporting large-scale sequencing centers.

09120-govpol1-1999largescalesequencer.jpg
Credit: Broad Institute
1999 Researchers working at an large-scale sequencing center

 

2000

Draft of human genome sequence completed

Leaders celebrate its completion at the White House.

2000

09120-govpol1-2000fruitfly.jpg
Credit: NHGRI
2000 Craig Venter (left) and Francis Collins, then NHGRI director, celebrate completion of the draft human genome sequence at the White House.

Fruit fly sequence is completed

09120-govpol1-2000TimeMagcxd.jpg
Credit: Shutterstock
2000 Drosophila melanogaster

Drosophila melanogaster genome is sequenced.

2002

Draft of rat genome sequence published

09120-govpol1-2002rat.jpg
Credit: Shutterstock
2002 Rat

 

2002

Draft of rice genome sequence published

09120-govpol1-2002rice.jpg
Credit: Shutterstock
2002 Rice

 

2003

Human Genome Project ends

09120-govpol1-2003ENCODEcxd.jpg
Credit: Clare McLean/University of Washington
2003 William Noble, professor of genome sciences and of computer science at the University of Washington, Seattle, designed artificial intelligence programs to analyze ENCODE data.

The project is officially declared over.

2003

ENCODE begins

09120-govpol1-2005genographicproject.jpg
Credit: National Geographic Society
2005 A woman participates in the Genographic Project in Queens, N.Y.

NHGRI launches the Encyclopedia of DNA Elements, a public research effort to identify all functional elements in the human genome sequence.

2005

Genographic Project begins

National Geographicmagazine and IBM launch the project to analyze historical patterns in DNA from people around the world to better understand human genetic roots.

2007

Human Microbiome Project begins

NIH funds effort to characterize the microbial communities found at several sites on the human body.

2008

Genetic Information Nondiscrimination Act becomes law

09120-govpol1-2008bushsigningcxd.jpg
Credit: Eric Draper/White House
2008 President Bush signs the Genetic Information Nondiscrimination Act (GINA) of 2008.

President George W. Bush signs the act into law, which prohibits the use of genetic information for health insurance and employment.

2008

Second-generation sequencers introduced

New sequencing platforms cause the cost of DNA sequencing to plummet, outpacing Moore's law.

2010

1000 Genomes Project publishes paper

Project consortium publishes a pilot paper in Nature, showing genetic variation in 1,000 human genomes.

2012

ENCODE results published

Results of the project, covering more than 4 million regulatory regions in the human genome, are published as a coordinated set of 30 papers in multiple journals.

• To download a PDF of this story, go to http://cenm.ag/hgp.

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