Workers and consumers exposed to 1,4-dioxane, a widely used industrial solvent and contaminant found in many consumer products, face increased risks of cancer as well as skin, liver, and kidney damage, EPA concludes in an initial assessment. EPA currently classifies 1,4-dioxane as “likely to be carcinogenic to humans” by all routes of exposure. The agency plans to further evaluate the risks of exposure to 1,4-dioxane in products that are regulated under the Toxic Substances Control Act. In particular, EPA will assess the risks to workers exposed to the chemical during the production and use of cleaning agents, as well as the risks to workers and consumers exposed to 1,4-dioxane as a contaminant in paints, adhesives, cleaners, and detergents. Although 1,4-dioxane is also found as a by-product in many cosmetics and shampoos, such products fall under the Food & Drug Administration’s jurisdiction. Risk assessments in Canada and Europe have concluded that current levels of 1,4-dioxane contamination do not raise concerns for human health, but EPA still plans to update its risk assessment.