To download a pdf of this article, visit http://cenm.ag/antiviralhistory.
References used to create this graphic:
Dance, Amber. “The Challenges of Antiviral Treatments.” Knowable Magazine, Feb. 9, 2021.
De Clercq, Erik. “Antivirals: Past, Present and Future.” Biochem. Pharmacol. (2013). DOI: 10.1016/j.bcp.2012.12.011.
De Clercq, Erik. “Antivirals and Antiviral Strategies.” Nat. Rev. Microbiol. (2004). DOI: 10.1038/nrmicro975.
De Clercq, Erik, and Guangdi Li. “Approved Antiviral Drugs over the Past 50 Years.” Clin. Microbiol. Rev. (2016). DOI: 10.1128/CMR.00102-15.
Dolgin, Elie. “The Race for Antiviral Drugs to Beat COVID—and the Next Pandemic.” Nature, April 14, 2021.
Field, Hugh J., and Erik De Clercq. “Antiviral Drugs–a Short History of Their Discovery and Development.” Microbiology Today, May 1 2004.
Kausar, Shamaila, Fahad Said Khan, Muhammad Ishaq Mujeeb Ur Rehman, Muhammad Akram, Muhammad Riaz, Ghulam Rasool, Abdul Hamid Khan, Iqra Saleem, Saba Shamim, Arif Malik. “A Review: Mechanism of Action of Antiviral Drugs.” Int. J. Immunopathol. Pharmacol. (2021). DOI: 10.1177/20587384211002621
A collaboration between C&EN and Andy Brunning, author of the popular graphics blog Compound Interest
This graphic was updated on February 9, 2022, to correct the structure of saquinavir.
The graphic was updated on March 17, 2022, to correct the stereochemistry of the amide side chain of saquinavir. The central amide group should be connected by a wedge, not a dash.