The US Environmental Protection Agency will begin reporting in late 2022 how many animal tests chemical and pesticide manufacturers conduct to comply with regulatory requirements. The EPA plans to disclose such information annually to demonstrate progress on reducing vertebrate-animal testing. It announced the move Dec. 2 as part of an updated plan for reducing the use of animals in toxicity testing. The plan identifies steps the agency expects to take through 2024 to develop and apply nonanimal approaches that provide chemical hazard and risk information. The EPA is starting with commercial chemicals and pesticides and plans to reduce animal testing in its own research. As part of the effort, the agency is funding the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine to evaluate the variability of traditional animal toxicity tests and their relevance to human health. The National Academies will also review frameworks for validating and establishing scientific confidence in nonanimal testing methods, such as those using human cells or tissues.