To download a PDF of this article, visit: cenm.ag/snowice
References used to create this graphic:
Brunning, Andy. “The Shapes of Snowflakes.” Compound Interest, Dec. 10, 2014.
Conners, Deanna. “How Snowflakes Get Their Shapes.” EarthSky, Jan. 28, 2019.
Lemonick, Sam. “Scientists Find the Smallest Number of Water Molecules That Can Form Ice.” Chemical & Engineering News, Nov. 7, 2019.
McNeill, V. Faye, and Meredith G. Hastings. “Ice in the Environment: Connections to Atmospheric Chemistry.” Environ. Res. Lett. (2008). DOI: 10.1088/1748-9326/3/4/045004.
A collaboration between C&EN and Andy Brunning, author of the popular graphics blog Compound Interest
This graphic was updated on Feb. 11, 2020, to clarify the plot of density versus temperature for water and ice. Originally, the plot depicted density versus temperature for liquid water at all temperatures. To better match the text in the graphic, the plot has been updated to depict density versus temperature for liquid water above 0 °C and for ice below 0 °C.
This graphic's references were updated also on Feb. 11, 2020, to add in missing entries and correct the spelling of Deanna Conners's name.