A droplet of multiwall carbon nanotubes suspended in water freezes from the bottom up. As ice forms over time (left to right and top to bottom), the nanotubes (black) get expelled from the developing solid instead of being incorporated into the ice matrix. Researchers studied this process to understand how nanomaterials will behave in the environment as the technology moves from the lab to commercial products.
Credit: Phillip Servio/Cryst. Growth Des.2015, DOI: 10.1021/acs.cgd.5b00601
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